# unit v sampling methods and calculations particulates

Welding fumes are a common occupational exposure. Several different welding fumes can cause similar adverse health effects. Personal sampling of a welding operation at a manufacturing facility produced the following 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) results for individual metal fumes.

Metal Fume

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Result

OSHA PEL

ACGIH TLV

Antimony

0.05 mg/mÂ³

0.5 mg/mÂ³

0.5 mg/mÂ³

Beryllium

0.00001 mg/mÂ³

0.002 mg/mÂ³

0.00005 mg/mÂ³ (I)

0.025 mg/mÂ³

0.1 mg/mÂ³

0.01 mg/mÂ³

Chromium

0.02 mg/mÂ³

1 mg/mÂ³

0.5 mg/mÂ³

Copper

0.03 mg/mÂ³

0.1 mg/mÂ³

0.2 mg/mÂ³

Iron Oxide

0.5 mg/mÂ³

10 mg/mÂ³

5 mg/mÂ³ (R)

Magnesium Oxide

0.02 mg/mÂ³

15 mg/mÂ³

10 mg/mÂ³

Molybdenum

0.003 mg/mÂ³

15 mg/mÂ³

10 mg/mÂ³ (I)

Nickel

0.25 mg/mÂ³

1 mg/mÂ³

1.5 mg/mÂ³ (I)

Zinc Oxide

0.3 mg/mÂ³

5 mg/mÂ³

2 mg/mÂ³ (R)

(R) Respirable fraction (I) Inhalable fraction

Briefly summarize the primary health effects associated with overexposure to each type of metal fume, including both acute and chronic health effects. Explain what analytical methods you would use for evaluating health hazards in the workplace.

Identify the types of metal fumes that would produce similar health effects on an exposed worker. Assume that each listed metal can cause respiratory irritation. Use the equation in 1910.1000(d)(2)(i) to calculate the equivalent exposure (in relation to OSHA PELS) for the metal fumes with similar health effects based on the â€œResultâ€ column in the table above. Discuss whether you believe any of the individual metal fume exposures or the combined exposure exceeds an OSHA PEL or an ACGIH TLV.

Your homework assignment should be a minimum of two pages in length.