1. According to the dualistic theories, the body and mind are two different entities that interact and influence each other. Descartes explanation of mind-body interaction problem is that in mind, the body had a “Pineal gland”. Some other theorist such is Liebniz claims that the mind and body don’t interact but run in parallel order like two synchronized clocks. In my opinion mind and body are connected and influence each other. For example, if you have the first date, you will try to remain calm and composed, but inside you may feel nervous and stressed. The reaction will be that you will sweat more than usual or you will have nervous ticks. The bottom line is that our emotional state affects us physically. Also, my religious belief is that soul-mind is identified with reason (mind). There are many passages in Holy Scripture with this meaning. I believe that there is no existence of the body without a soul or existence of a soul without the body.
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2. In the contemporary society, clinicians will be increasingly involved in assisting individuals with making end-of-life decisions. I believe number one consideration for clinicians working with individuals who are dealing with end-of-life issues is: “counselors working in hospice settings need to be skilled in grief and bereavement counseling, knowledgeable about death education, aware of their feelings and beliefs about death, capable of maintaining personal and professional boundaries, and practicing effective and meaningful self-care” (Gladding & Newsome, 2017, p. 363). Also, clinicians should have knowledge about the implications of advance directives, such as living will and a durable power of attorney. The clinicians have to respect individual’s autonomy and their right to decide when and how to accelerate their decision regarding end-of-life. Other considerations are, assessing individual’s capacity for decision making, respecting cultural values of the individual, and maintaining confidentiality. Since this issue may cause clinicians to struggle with own ethical dilemma, it is essential to find an answer to the question what our position on an individual’s right to decide when dealing with end-of-life issues is?
3. Contemporary world and progress in the medical and psychological field positively influence how we think and approach in a different way about health and illness. The integration of medicine and psychology improves the outcome of mental health. Mental health issues are usually psychological and physiological. Therefore, whereas counselors seek to treat the psychological aspects, the medical professionals treat the physiological aspects. Not treating both aspects may make people prone to relapses. For example, in drug addiction, even though clients may need counseling to get the meaning of their lives and understand how to stay away from drugs, they may need drugs to alleviate the withdrawals and therefore ease the process. Thus, psychology and counseling have to work together because they share the goal of improving the health of people.