Water/Solution Chemistry, chemistry homework help

QUESTION 1

Which of the following properties is NOT a property of water?

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strong surface tension

high capillary action with glass

ability to dissolve polar molecules

spontaneous dissociation into gases

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QUESTION 2

Every solution is composed of a solvent and at least one:

suspension

solute

solid

saturated substance

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QUESTION 3

Why does stirring increase the rate of solution formation for a solid solute in a liquid solvent?

Stirring brings solute particles closer together and provides them with additional energy.

Stirring mixes solute particles with solvent particles more thoroughly, providing more chances of interaction.

Stirring makes the entire solution warmer so that the temperature increases noticeably.

Stirring agitates the solute particles and increases the rate of precipitation.

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QUESTION 4

A solution in which equilibrium exists between dissolved and undissolved solute must be:

dilute

saturated

unsaturated

concentrated

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QUESTION 5

Imported Asset

At which temperature would a 40-gram KCl per 100 grams of water solution, be considered supersaturated?

30°

50°

70°

80°

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QUESTION 6

Using solubility rules, determine if the following compounds are soluble in water.

insoluble

Read Answer Items for Question 6

soluble

Read Answer Items for Question 6

Answer

A.

Ca(NO3)2

B.

Mg3(PO4)2

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QUESTION 7

Predict whether the following double-replacement reaction will produce a precipitate: MgCl2 + Li2CO3 Imported Asset MgCO3 + 2 LiCl.

No; all products are soluble

Yes; the MgCO3 will precipitate

Yes; the LiCl will precipitate

Yes; both the MgCO3 and the LiCl will precipitate

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QUESTION 8

Write the overall, ionic and net ionic equations for the following reaction.

Nitric acid (HNO3) and barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)2) (please respond with a few sentences explaining)

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QUESTION 9

A solution is prepared by mixing 0.767 kg of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with 2.71 kg of water to make 3.00 L of solution. What is the percentage composition by mass of sulfuric acid in this solution?

22.0%

25.6%

27.1%

28.3%

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QUESTION 10

You have 100 milliliters of a 0.50 M MgBr2 solution and dilute it to a total volume of 200 milliliters. What is the molarity of the resulting solution? (please respond with a few sentences explaining)

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QUESTION 11

Which two factors determine the vapor pressure of a solution containing a non-volatile solute dissolved in a volatile solvent, at a given temperature?

the molar mass of the solute and the volume of the solution

the vapor pressure of the solute and the concentration of the solvent

the concentration of the solute and the molar mass of the solvent

the vapor pressure of the solvent and the concentration of the (non-volatile) solute particles

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QUESTION 12

Calculate the freezing point of a 2.6-molal aqueous sucrose solution. The freezing point depression constant for water is 1.86 degrees C/molal.

4.8 °C

1.4 °C

-1.4 °C

-4.8 °C

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QUESTION 13

Acids generally:

enhance the properties of bases

release hydrogen gas when mixed with metals

feel slippery

taste bitter

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QUESTION 14

Which material is most likely to be a base?

salt water

vinegar

coffee

orange juice

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QUESTION 15

Write an overall equation for the acid-base reaction that would be required to produce the following salt.

MgCl2 (please respond with a few sentences explaining)

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QUESTION 16

Rank the acid-base definitions from most specific (exclusive) to most general (inclusive):

Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry, Lewis

Arrhenius, Lewis, Brønsted-Lowry

Brønsted-Lowry, Lewis, Arrhenius

Lewis, Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry

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QUESTION 17

Acids:

are generally proton donors

produce H+ ions in solution

are electron pair acceptors

may include all of these characteristics

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QUESTION 18

Bases:

are generally proton acceptors

produce OH− ions in solution

are electron pair donors

may include all of these characteristics

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QUESTION 19

The formula HNO3 is named:

nitrous acid

nitric acid

hydrogen nitrogen trioxide

hydrogen nitrite

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QUESTION 20

Weak acids:

are always more soluble than strong acids

have a higher degree of dissociation than do strong acids

only ionize a fraction of their molecules

always produce weak conjugate bases

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QUESTION 21

Milk is only slightly acidic. The pH of milk is closest to:

2

4

6

8

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QUESTION 22

The pH of a solution measures the [H3O+] in the solution. If one solution has a pH of 4 and another solution has a pH of 3, how does the [H3O+] in the two solutions compare?

They are in a 1:1 ratio.

They are in a 1:10 ratio.

They are in a 1:100 ratio.

They are in a 1:1000 ratio.

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QUESTION 23

A solution has a [OH−] of 1 x 10−9. What is the pOH of this solution?

5

7

9

12

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QUESTION 24

When weak acids react with strong bases, the H+ from the weak acid is transferred to the:

metal of the strong base to form a metal hydride

OH− from the strong base to form water and a salt

salt that is produced

water molecule that is produced

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QUESTION 25

Write the overall, ionic and net ionic equations for the following reaction.Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) (please respond with a few sentences explaining)

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QUESTION 26

How many milliliters of a 0.100 M NaOH solution are required to neutralize 25.0 milliliters of 0.150 M HCl?

25.0 ml

37.5 ml

125 ml

167 ml

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QUESTION 27

If a small amount of excess acid is added to a buffered solution, the pH of the solution should:

change sharply and then neutralize

remain very close to the original pH value

fluctuate rapidly between high and low values and then achieve a neutral balance

neutralize instantaneously

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QUESTION 28

Oxidation numbers can be used to identify the element that is being oxidized and the element that is being reduced in a redox equation.

TRUE

FALSE

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QUESTION 29

Although aluminum is a more active metal than iron, and therefore, oxidizes more quickly than iron, aluminum degrades much more slowly than iron. This is because:

There is more aluminum than iron available on the Earth.

Aluminum oxide coats the exposed aluminum surfaces preventing further corrosion.

The iron is more reactive with a greater number of environmental agents.

The iron oxide is much more soluble in water than the aluminum oxide.

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QUESTION 30

Although Group 7A ions may have different oxidation states depending on which other elements are in the compound, the most common oxidation number for Group 7A (Group 17) ions is:

1−

3+

5+

7+

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QUESTION 31

Identify the oxidizing agent in the following equation: Al (s) + 3 Ag+ (aq) Imported Asset Al+3 (aq) + 3 Ag (s).

Al (s)

Ag+ (aq)

Al+3 (aq)

Ag (s)

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QUESTION 32

Balance the following oxidation-reduction reaction and indicate which atoms have undergone oxidation and reduction.____FeCl3 + ____H2S Imported Asset ____FeCl2 + ____S + ____HCl (please respond with a few sentences explaining)

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QUESTION 33

In a similar way to oxidation-reduction reactions, half-reactions can be written for electrochemical reactions.

TRUE

FALSE

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QUESTION 34

Voltaic cells and electrolytic cells are similar because:

Both cells use a salt bridge to keep the electrons flowing within the cells.

Both cells have a positive anode.

Both cells have a negative cathode.

Both cells require the input of energy.