. Right after the wars of independence, what was the most important source of revenue for the new governments in Spanish America? a.taxation from citizens
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- international loans
- sale of office
2. In simple terms, what did the conservatives want for Latin America?
- to impose a monarchical government
- to go back to the colonial model under the Spanish king
- things to remain the same
3. Which of the following statements best describes patronage?
- It is a system whereby people in power distribute spoils to friends and family in exchange for their loyalty.
- It is a system in which corruption is penalized by death.
- It is a political system based on merit.
- It is an economic system that promotes free trade.
4.What relationship did Juan Manuel de Rosas establish with the Catholic Church?
- Rosas established a close relationship with the church.
- When Rosas came to power, he expelled all Catholics from Argentina.
- He promoted a strict separation of state and church.
- No answer text provided.
5. What was the meaning of the red ribbon in Rosas’s Argentina?
- The red ribbon was associated with communist ideas.
- Rosas’s adversaries wore a red ribbon.
- Rosas’s supporters wore a red ribbon.
- Indigenous people and people of African descent were forced to wear a red ribbon.
6.What was the most important thing that caudillos got in return for the riches they gave out?
7. Constitutions proved to be symbolic during the first half of the eighteenth century. What did they represent?
- republican government
- popular sovereignty
8.What title did Pedro I hold after Brazil’s independence?
- prime minister
9.During the first half of the nineteenth century, what crop substituted sugar as the prime export product from Brazil?
- Brazilian wood
10. What brought pride to the Brazilian elite?
- The fact that, in contrast with Spanish America, Brazil had a peaceful transition towardindependence.
- The fact that Brazil was the largest country in Latin America.
- The fact that Brazilians could export more cacao in a year than any other country in the region
- The fact that Brazil had a powerful and capable monarch in charge.
11.For Brazil, the first half of eighteenth century was a period marked by which of the following?
- profound changes
- conservative continuation from the colonial period
- the abolition of slavery
12.Which was the greatest fear of the liberals of Brazil?
- economic stagnation
- possible rebellions
- the recolonization of Brazil by the Portuguese
- the centralization of power in the hands of the local merchants
13.Who were the regents?
- a group of Portuguese merchants who lived in Brazil
- a group of religious fanatics
- a group of indigenous people fighting for their own rights
- adult guardians that ruled in the name of the young king
14.What was the main mode of subsistence for indigenous people during the first half of the eighteenth century?
- They worked in factories.
- They worked in the mines.
- They lived off the state.
- subsistence agriculture
15. Who held the most power in postcolonial Latin America?
- the people
- indigenous groups
- Catholic groups
- the landowners
16. What happened during the Caste War of Yucatán?
- Maya people rose up with the objective of cleansing their land of all intruders.
- People of African descent rose against the ruling elites in Brazil.
- Inca descendants rebelled against the Spanish Empire.
- Poor people in Mexico raised arms behind the symbolic image of the Virgin ofGuadalupe.
17.In comparison with the colonial period, how did most women’s lives change after independence?
- Their lives didn’t change because they continued to be excluded from politics.
- After independence, women earned the right to vote.
- After independence, women entered the job market.
- Their lives changed radically as patriarchal norms ceased to exist.
18. By the second half of the nineteenth century, which statement best defined the idea of “Progress” ?
- Progress connected with nationalism.
- Progress was the idea of inevitable, all-conquering technological advancement.
- Progress translated into capitalism.
- Progress meant equality and democracy.
19. For the nationalists, what is the greatest obstacle to Progress?
- the present
- the future
- the past
- the Church
20. In which Latin American country did the Church have the strongest presence by the middle of the nineteenth century?
21.By the middle of the nineteenth century, did the Church in Mexico own land?
- Yes, the Church owned about half the best farmland in Mexico.
- No, the Church was legally restricted from owning land.
- The Church was allowed to own land, but had almost nothing.
- The Church was allowed to own land, but was obliged to share it with all its parishioners.
22. What was a “fuero” and who enjoyed it in Mexico?
- The fuero was a legal exemption enjoyed by the indigenous people.
- The fuero was a large house where the clergy lived.
- The fuero was a broad legal exemption enjoyed by the clergy.
- The fuero was the amount of money the clergy received each year for their service.
23.Who invited the French monarchs to rule Mexico?
- the Spaniards
- all Mexicans
24. Which statement best describes the relationship between women and liberalism during the second half of the nineteenth century?
- Liberalism radically changed the lives of women.
- Liberalism did not change the lives of women.
- Liberalism caused the lives of all women to change for the worse.
- Liberalism changed the lives of a selected group of women.
25. During the second half of the nineteenth century, how did the few women who gained rights become influential?
- as politicians
- as writers
- as wives
- as teachers
26. In which country did the following statement become the liberal slogan: Gobernar es poblar, “To govern is to populate”?
27. Why did Alberdi urge the government to promote European immigration to Argentina?
- Argentina had a small population.
- Argentina had a small population, and Europeans were supposedly superior people.
- He wanted to move all Argentines to Brazil, and populate the country with Europeans.
- The Europeans would bring investments.
28. Because of the governing parties’ liberal political philosophy, by the end of the nineteenth century, Buenos Aires would end up resembling which of these cities?
- Lima and Caracas
- Boston and New York
- Miami and San Francisco
- Milan and Paris
29. What was the darker side of liberalism?
- its racial ideas
- its economic ideas
- its antireligious sentiments
- its intentions to destroy the Catholic Church
30. Which were the consequences of the Brazilian “free birth” law?
- The law freed all slaves.
- The law established that slaves would remain slaves, but their children would be born free.
- The law did not relate to slaves.
- The law banned the slave trade.
31. Which countries were involved in The Triple Alliance War?
- Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay
- Paraguay and Bolivia
- Mexico and Chile
- Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay
32. Which country was considered the most politically stable in the nineteenth century?
33. Before he was granted the commission for the Detroit Institute of Arts, where did Diego Rivera create a mural in 1930?
- Los Angeles
- New York
- San Francisco
34. Which of the following statements does not apply to the East Wall of the Detroit Industry murals?
- Nude female figures represent the fertility of Europe and the Americas.
- The geological strata of Michigan is represented.
- The depiction of plowshares represents agriculture.
- The representation of hawks and doves reflects the dual opposites of war and peace, respectively.
35. On the West Wall of the Detroit Industry murals, which technology does Rivera present as a symbol of both the positive and destructive sides of industry?
36. In which country did Henry Ford’s “Fordlandia” rubber plantation exist?
- Costa Rica
37. In the vaccination panel of the North Wall of the Detroit Industry murals, which popular actress does Rivera present as the nurse?
- Mary Pickford
- Bette Davis
- Jean Harlow
- Clara Bow
38.In which section of the South Wall of the Detroit Industry murals does Henry Ford make his only true appearance?
- He is shown in a predella as a teacher of a trade school engine class.
- He is one of the spectators on the factory tour.
- He is the foreman supervising the workers.
- He is the manager of the pharmaceuticals company surrounded by beautiful women and various machines.
39. Which two individuals are depicted in the lower right corner of the South Wall of the Detroit Industry murals?
- Henry Ford and Thomas Edison
- Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo
- Dick Tracy and Charlie Chan
- Edsel Ford and William Valentiner
40. Which of the following statements is not true about the “Fordlandia” panel of Rivera’s Detroit Industry mural series?
- It is a panel depicting the interdependence of North and South American that conveys the impression of a sculpted niche carved in stone.
- Freighter ships, pleasure boats and fish swim in the symbolic union of the Detroit and Amazon rivers.
- The half-skull figure is based on early Tlatilco (Mexico) sculpture from 1000 to 500 BC.
- The half-face figure is an image of Abraham Lincoln.
41. According to the Chicano Park film, what is the best description for the term “Aztlan”?
- This was the main city of the Aztec empire.
- This was considered the original homeland for the Aztecs.
- This was a large Maya city in Central America.
- This was the name of the artist collective group founded by Salvador “Queso” Torres
42. What is the significance of the date of April 22, 1970?
- This was the date that the San Diego City Council awarded Barrio Logan the space for what would eventually become Chicano Park.
- This was the date that the first mural by José Gómez was painted in Chicano Park.
- This was when the residents of Barrio Logan occupied the patch of land under the Coronado Bridge, preventing the construction of a California Highway Patrol station.
- This was the date that Cesar Chavez visited Barrio Logan and encouraged the residents to fight for the creation of Chicano Park.
43. In which year was the first border crossing created, which ultimately ended the period in which people could freely cross the border between the United States and Mexico?
44. How would you best characterize the type of themes that Yolanda López painted in her Chicano Park murals?
- she painted Aztec and Maya goddesses
- she created images similar to that of her idol, Frida Kahlo
- she painted mainly political themes, featuring Communist leaders like Che Guevara and Karl Marx.
- she wished to celebrate and empower women by including herself, her mother and grandmother in her murals.
45. The term “yonquerías” refers to:
- auto body shops
- shipbuilding yards
46. What purpose did the Barrio Station have in the Barrio Logan community?
- youth center
- health clinic
- artists collective
- farmers’ market
47. The “Royal Chicano Air Force” were a collective group of:
- union organizers
48. Who was the head of the Chicano Park Steering Committee?
- José Gómez
- Guillermo Aranda
- Josie Talamantez
- Ramón “Chunky” Sánchez
49. Who painted the recent Chicano Park mural, one depicting the plight of migrant workers and denouncing President Donald Trump’s planned border wall? a. Yolanda López
- Sal Barajas
- Victor Ochoa
- Mario Torero