Giving and Receiving Constructive Feedback

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Respond to the
following annotated bibliographies by noting a minimum of two strengths and two
areas in which the bibliography could be improved. Give specific
suggestions for improvement. Consider both the content and writing
clarity in your evaluation.

Annotated Bibliography 1

Advances in Leadership
Development: An Annotated Bibliography

Aggarwal, R., & Goodell, J. W. (2014). Personal
Leadership Development in International

  Business. Journal
Of Teaching In International Business
25(1), 1-4.

authors discuss what they see as a weakness in international business
education. Specifically, they feel that the fundamental curriculum in most
business programs does not prepare students to perform successfully in the
global marketplace. Citing recent studies they note an awareness of this
weakness in leadership training beginning as early as the 1980s.

authors outline the failures in curricula, but their agenda here is simply to
introduce a collection of articles featured in a particular issue of the Journal of Teaching in International
Whereas they set up the articles that address issues of teaching
international business and provide a useful literature review, there is little
else as far as solutions. The criteria for article selection are not discussed;
therefore, an editorial agenda could be in place.

and Goodell point to some potentially valuable sources in their literature
review, and this may be of value. However, as this is merely an editorial and
introduction, it provides little in the way of analysis.

Jamison, D. (2010). Leadership and Professional
Development: An Integral Part of the Business

  Curriculum. Business
Education Innovation Journal
2(2), 102-111.

The author takes a
socioeconomic stance on the preparedness of business students, suggesting that
individuals from blue-collar backgrounds are disadvantaged by their lack of
exposure to professional environments. The study’s goal was to develop a model
curriculum that would include skills that are generally acquired by the type of
professional exposure more common to individuals from more advantaged
backgrounds. The model addressed the development of these soft skills by
identifying core competencies required of such a curriculum and suggesting
course content to address them. The program under review was the Leadership and
Professional Development Program at South Carolina State University.

Though the author points
to the growth and expansion of the program’s offerings, this does not address
the issue of quantifiable or qualifiable outcomes. In addition, the test
group’s limitations, both regional and demographic are not taken into account.

Though this study had
inherent weaknesses, it provided a solid framework for a soft-skill focused
curriculum that might address gaps in the preparedness of business students as
they enter the work force. Further study might extend this by focusing on
different regions of the country or including a cultural or gender-based

Smit, A. (2013). Responsible leadership development
through management education: A

ethics perspective. African Journal of Business Ethics7(2),

author takes an ethical stance on the development of future leaders suggesting
that there is more to the equation than simply the creation of successful individuals.
The key to the future, Smit suggests, is a curriculum that adds a focus on
ethics and personal accountability and responsibility. Smit sees a global or
planetary responsibility on the part of business leaders and finds the answer
in the university classroom. The author pointed to a significant study that
claimed that the business education of the past created much of the negligent
and negative business practices of the present. The author argued for
curriculum that takes into account the 50 + 20 Agenda, which re-examines
business education norms of the past 50 years and pays respect to the 1992 Rio
Earth Summit.

approach is far-reaching and altruistic; however, it assumes the possibility of
collaboration and agreement between decidedly diverse groups. The theory is
sound and draws attention to the need for less focus on the individual and
greater focus on society.

the study had a visionary perspective, it did not outline entirely unreachable
goals. Elements of Smit’s proposal should be taken into account when developing
a broader-based and more effective business curriculum for future business


Annotated Bibliography 2

Annotated Bibliography on Innovation

PRESS, & Sandlin, E. (2014). Need Clients? The 5 Best Ways to Market Your
Consulting Business. Retrieved October 25, 2015, from

The article focuses on 5 ways that an entrepreneur can market a new
consulting business. The authors relay that marketing services is not the same
as selling a product. In the case of a consulting business, the task is harder
because the potential customers may not even be aware that they need the
services. The conventional methods focused on in the article are direct mail,
cold calls, advertising, newsletters and referrals. This strategies are ideal
because they offer grounds that facilitate reaching new clients, the target
market and many potential clients. The information offers effective and proven
methods that an entrepreneur can start with in a bid to attract new clients to
the business. The article expounds on the methods and clearly elaborates what
the methods entail and what entrepreneurs should expect.

The article has been written by Eileen Figure Sandlin who is a business
writer and then edited by professionals at Entrepreneur. The authors have in
depth knowledge of business and are experts in various business related fields
such as entrepreneurship. Sandlin is a recognized and well-established author
who has written numerous books and business related articles. She also teaches
Business Communication Methods at Walsh College. Her experience and educational
background makes her a credible source for business articles.

The article relays industry-specific information that is highly
beneficial when starting a business. The information is supported by lessons
learned, expert interviews and success secrets from people in business in the
industry. The sources are credible which helps in making the article spot on,
informative and accurate.

Field, A.
(2010). 7 Tips For Taking Your Business International. Retrieved October 25,
2015, from

The article 7 Tips For Taking Your
Business International
by Anne Field, highlights and expounds on several
tips that are helpful for businesses that want to expand to different
countries. The author states that international expansion is the key to
significant growth. Once businesses expand to different countries, they get
access to growing economies and enjoy the benefits of serving varied markets.
Some of the things that business people that want to go global should consider
is diversity. It is reflected in the different cultures and languages. It is also
equally important to take note of regulations which vary from one country to
another. Businesses have to take time to choose the right local distributor.
Venturing into new territory is not cheap hence entrepreneurs should be ready
to meet the costs. In line with the article, entrepreneurs should choose the
market carefully, focus on a wide range of sources when it comes to choosing
distributors, ensure that they meet their distributors in person, create a good
contract and plan ahead among other things.

Anne Field is a freelance writer who is well known for writing good and
informative business articles. She has written articles for big publication
firms such as the New York Times,, and Business Week just to
mention a few. She is well-versed with business related topics which makes her
views insightful.

The information has been sourced from the industry. These includes
leaders in the field, and businesses that are involved in international
business. The information gives a good picture of what is involved and aspects
that are important for an entrepreneur that wants to expand into international
markets. The limitation of the article is that it was written in 2010. Since
that time some of the things highlighted such as international service fee
rates may have changed or may have been adjusted. This means that a reader
still has to carry out more research to get current information.

D. (2012). The Rise Of The Consultant-Turned-Entrepreneur. Retrieved October
25, 2015, from

The article stipulates that the experience a person has as a consultant
is valuable and relevant to an entrepreneurs’ success. The author posits that
consulting is immensely important in the start-up of a business. The article
focuses on valuable consulting skills from the perspective of ex-consultants
who ventured and started their own businesses. The general consensus is that
consulting skills are beneficial in starting up a business regardless of the
stage a company is in or the industry. Multiple stages have been focused on and
emphasized as important. These are namely the idea stage, the developmental
phase, the growth stage and the Caveat. The article expounds on the stages, in
line with what is involved and vital aspects that will contribute to making the
business successful. The article basically sheds light on the importance of
consulting in entrepreneurship.

The author Dana Rosenberg works at Health Tap as a Community Development
Lead. She in charge of marketing, branding, PR and user acquisition and
engagement. She formerly also worked as a consultant where she was tasked with
the responsibility of advising clients regarding acquisition and product
commercialization opportunities and target screening. Her background and
experience makes her well-versed with business and is better placed to shed
light on business practices.

The information for the article was sourced from primary sources through
interviews. The individuals interviewed are experts in their respective fields.
They have been in business for years and have extensive experience. These
aspects place them at a good position to give a clear account of what business
involves. The article is informative to entrepreneurs because it offers varied
perspectives regarding how to start a business. The information analysed is
also sourced from experts in the field which provides ideas and multiple angles
on how businesses can be started. This is in relation to the things that should
be focused on and that have a high likelihood of making sure that a start-up is

Utecht, S. (2013). Starting Your Small Business: An Entrepreneur’s

The article Starting Your Small
Business: An Entrepreneur’s Guide
was written by Shawn Utecht. It a guide
that is meant to help an entrepreneur who wishes to start a business. It
highlights that owning a business has many benefits but there are also some
challenges and risks that a person should be prepared to encounter. The guide
is beneficial because it helps an entrepreneur to find resources, grasp
potential challenges and gain a thorough understanding of the process of
starting a business. The article covers all the key essential factors and
aspects that entrepreneurs should be aware of. It is informative and
comprehensive which helps a person to get an idea of what business entails and
key areas that entrepreneurs should focus on if they want to succeed.

Shawn Utetch, the author is a manager of employer relations. He works at
the College of Business at Colorado State University. He is a counsellor who is
nationally certified and has extensive experience in career services. He has a
diverse background in industry, non-profit work and education. He has also
consulted on a wide range of projects in different regions around the world
which makes him fully capable of analysing business on an international level.
His background, educational qualifications and experience make him fully
equipped to handle and give advice on business.

Data collection was based on a review of secondary sources from credible
avenues. The information was sourced from peer-reviewed sources and government
sites. These include the US Census Bureau, the IDC, Small business
administration, and Wells Fargo/Gallup Small Business Index. The article is
detailed yet simple. The author focused on the relevant data that would be able
to give a reader a comprehensive account of what entrepreneurship entails. Some
of the aspects that have been focused on are things that are essential to
starting a business in line with the qualities, skills, level of preparation,
and expectations that one should have. It also highlights the trends and facts
of the industry and the value of having a good plan. In addition, several
resources that have valuable information on the topic have also been mentioned
which a reader can look into if one intends to get more data and they can help
in extensive planning and research.