distinguish between the constructs of intelligence and achievement in terms of how they are defined and how they are measured

I am looking for a 250-word response to 2 questions. Each need at least two scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source included. I have provided 4 resources for Question 1 & 5 for Question 2

Question 1

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Distinguish between the constructs of intelligence and achievement in terms of how they are defined and how they are measured. In what ways could these constructs be used to create a theoretical framework for research? Support your answer.


Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child development, 78(1), 246-263. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00995.x

Ceci, S. J. (1991). How much does schooling influence general intelligence and its cognitive components? A reassessment of the evidence. Developmental Psychology, 27(5), 703-722. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.27.5.703

Naglieri, J. A., & Bornstein, B. T. (2003). Intelligence and Achievement: Just how Correlated are they? Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 21(3), 244–260. doi:10.1177/073428290302100302

Watkins, M. W., Lei, P., & Canivez, G. L. (2007). Psychometric intelligence and achievement: A cross-lagged panel analysis. Intelligence, 35(1), 59-68. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2006.04.005

Question 2

What is the most critical issue that a professional should consider when selecting an intelligence testing instrument? Provide your rationale. When responding to this DQ think about the global impact of an IQ measure. Is intelligence a universal concept, or one specifically defined within a culture? Do IQ tests generalize to all nationalities? Why or why not? If not, how can one measure intelligence across cultures, languages, races, etc.?


Chan, R. C., Shum, D., Toulopoulou, T., & Chen, E. Y. (2008). Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues. Archives of clinical neuropsychology, 23(2), 201-216. doi:10.1016/j.acn.2007.08.010

Grove, W. M., Zald, D. H., Lebow, B. S., Snitz, B. E., & Nelson, C. (2000). Clinical versus mechanical prediction: A meta-analysis. Psychological Assessment, 12, 19–30. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.12.1.19

Hunsley, J., & Meyer, G. J. (2003). The incremental validity of psychological testing and assessment: Conceptual, methodological, and statistical issues. Psychological Assessment, 15(4), 446-455. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.15.4.446

Snyderman, M., & Rothman, S. (1987). Survey of expert opinion on intelligence and aptitude testing. American Psychologist, 42(2), 137-144. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.42.2.137

Spearman, C. (1904). “General Intelligence,” Objectively Determined and Measured. The American Journal of Psychology,15(2), 201-292. doi:10.2307/1412107