biology assignment 2

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this is 3 pages

Background

Whether it was volcanic activity that spewed sulfur dioxide
and ash into the atmosphere, or a giant meteor that crashed into the Earth
blasting dust and debris into the sky, both theories of what caused the
dinosaurs to become extinct share one critical similarity — light from the sun
was obliterated. The result of the months’ long darkness was the mass
extinction of nearly 70% of all creatures on Earth.

Like the dinosaurs, humans cannot live without the sun. Not
only does it provide light and warmth, it is also the energy source for
arguably the most important chemical reaction on Earth: photosynthesis.

Answer the following assignment questions:

1. Explain how photosynthesis and respiration are linked in
order to provide you with energy from the food you eat.

Include in your essay:

Complete descriptions of photosynthesis and aerobic
respiration.

Describe how these two processes are linked between plants
and animals based on the reactants and products (water, carbon dioxide, glucose
and oxygen) of both pathways.

Include a description of how energy is transferred from
sunlight to ATP, from ATP to sugars, and from sugars to your cells.

2. In the absence of oxygen some cells and organisms can use
glycolysis coupled to fermentation to produce energy from the sugar created by
photosynthesis.

Explain the role of fermentation in allowing an organism to
generate energy for its cell(s) in the absence of oxygen.

Include any reactions required for this process, and explain
how the energy from the sun ends up as chemical energy for the anaerobic
organism or cell.

3. Cells use enzymes as biological catalysts to increase or
accelerate the rate of reactions, such as those in photosynthesis or
glycolysis. This allows reactions to occur under conditions that sustain life.

Explain how an enzyme catalyzes a reaction. Include in your
essay the three main steps of the cycle of enzyme-substrate interactions.

How is enzyme activity regulated by the cell?

Your essays should be
several paragraphs in length for each question, be thoroughly paraphrased, and
include appropriate in-text citations and a reference list in APA format