help answer this questions and response to these posts

1. Evidence is a key component in identifying trends and changing practice especially in the public health field. Choose a public health topic that you are especially passionate about. (e.g. water and sanitation, vaccinations, infectious disease, etc.) Discuss how studies/research support your views (for or against).

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2. Choose a recent international or humanitarian disaster.What public health issues were associated with this incident?How would you manage these issues?


there are two posts I need a response for each post


Vaccination has been a controversial topic in the last decade. The rise of the Anti-Vaccine activists have caused major fears among young people and parents which has curved the use of vaccines (Kata, A. 2012). The situation has mostly occurred due to the phenomenon of the ‘web 2.0’ the large amount of unchecked facts, headlines without journalistic integrity and ‘research’ with academic or government backing and lacking any peer review. (Kata, A. 2012).

And although some of these people may be sincere in their attempt to save people from the dangers of vaccines, there is very little evidence to suggest that vaccine side effects are significant. Even with any significance, it would be extremely difficult for that significance to outweigh the significant impact of an epidemic or pandemic on a global scale. There is of course, no comparison. Much of the criticisms of vaccines comes from the use of thimerosal, an organic form of mercury which is a preservative in the vaccines. Although as early back as 2003, the results of thimerosal having an affect on the nervous system of the individual were inconclusive. (Stehr-Green, P., Tull, P., Stellfeld, M., Mortenson, P. B., & Simpson, D. 2003).

Major diseases that threatened the world for many years in human history have been eradicated, put on the fast lanes to eradication or at the least have been contained. Measles, mumps, rubella, polio, many forms of the flu which would have killed 100,000s in the past. All have been stopped by effective vaccination of the population. (Andre, F. E., Booy, R., Bock, H. L., Clemens, J., Datta, S. K., John, T. J., … & Santosham, M. 2008)

Recently the H1N1 flu caused major concerns for the global community. Ebola was also a major concern, both of which left thousands dead. The successful creation of an effective vaccine was a major turning point in both humanitarian incidents. In the research I have done, my conclusions that the ways that I would manage these situations differently is by improving the speed of detection of the virus by creating better warning systems with all countries at risk and developing a stronger situational awareness by central organizations operating at the international level. What vaccination programs need the most is time. The more time we can give the experts the safer we become.


Andre, F. E., Booy, R., Bock, H. L., Clemens, J., Datta, S. K., John, T. J., … & Santosham, M. (2008). Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86(2), 140-146.

Kata, A. (2012). Anti-vaccine activists, Web 2.0, and the postmodern paradigm–An overview of tactics and tropes used online by the anti-vaccination movement. Vaccine, 30(25), 3778-3789.

Stehr-Green, P., Tull, P., Stellfeld, M., Mortenson, P. B., & Simpson, D. (2003). Autism and thimerosal-containing vaccines: lack of consistent evidence for an association. American journal of preventive medicine, 25(2), 101-106.



Water, sanitation, and hygiene are interlinked. Access to improved clean water requires enhanced sanitation which results in excellent health. Poor water and sanitation infrastructure cause most infections and diseases. Improvement of this infrastructure has a profound socio-economic impact on the community. Evidence-based practice helps in enhancing the water and sanitation and ensuring good health to the community. To improve on this infrastructure, the experts and those skilled in this field need to use their expertise to ensure that the community gets clean water and that the sanitation has excellent infrastructure. It is also essential to use the latest research on water and sanitation to help improve the supply of fresh water.Evidence-based practice ensures that people are involved in matters that concern them. For instance, it is essential that people learn the importance of water and sanitation and how they link to their health. The people’s prevalence and values should get consideration.

Drought and famine is the recent international humanitarian crisis where more than twenty million people are facing starvation and also famine in Nigeria, South Sudan, Yemen, and Somalia. Many people have died, and still, others continue suffering from hunger. The people in these countries suffer from diseases most of which are brought by contaminated water due to poor drainage and infrastructure. People travel long distances to get the unclean water which is the only one found. Most people have fled to neighboring countries. Therefore, access to health care providers is a big problem.

I think the best thing to do is to mobilize other countries and request them to provide funds that would help buy food for these people and drill water and dig boreholes in different places to ensure that the people get clean water. The funds would facilitate mobile clinic where the people would get health care wherever needed.

Cronk, R., Slaymaker, T., & Bartram, J. (2015). Monitoring drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene in non-household settings: Priorities for policy and practice. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 218(8), 694-703.

Prüss‐Ustün, A., Bartram, J., Clasen, T., Colford, J. M., Cumming, O., Curtis, V., … & Freeman, M. C. (2014). Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low‐and middle‐income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 19(8), 894-905.