answer question below 64

Answer the 3 questions below and reply to each student.

Student Reply must be over 200 words.

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Make sure all student replies you start it with Hello (Student Name),

Please upload each question in different word documents.

******Question 2 Is a POWERPOINT**************

Question 3 requires you to look at week 5 document for instructions and requires week 5 assignment format . *************(documents attached)

Question 1:

Various chronic diseases and disorders can affect our immune, gastrointestinal, and urinary systems, as described in Chapters 14, 15 and 16 of your course text. In your initial post:

  • Briefly describe the normal function of these three systems and associated organs.
  • Choose and briefly describe one chronic disease or disorder for each of the three systems and explain how the diseases/disorders alter the normal function.
  • Examine potential causes for the disease or disorder and list signs and symptoms that indicate the disease has developed.
  • Analyze actions people can take to reduce their risk of developing the chronic disease or disorder. Briefly explain how these actions would impact the environment.

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Use medical terminology, your course text, and at least one additional scholarly resource to support your points. All sources must be referenced and cited according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center .

Student Reply 1: Denise Scheuer

The immune system is the body’s main defense against foreign materials and biological agents, such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and foreign cells and tissues. The immune system is divided into two separate but extremely interdependent parts, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is nonspecific, has no memory, and cannot improve performance with experience. Adaptive immunity is specific, has memory, and can improve performance with experience (Colbert, Ankney, & Lee, 2013). The main organs associated with the immune system include the thymus and bone marrow. Secondary lymphatic tissues include the spleen, tonsils, lymph, vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, skin, and liver. Asthma and allergies are diseases of the immune system. When toxins are inhaled, they can trigger an asthma attack. During an asthma attack the cells in the airways become inflamed and lined with mucus, making it harder to breathe. Someone with asthma may experience signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest tightness, a whistling or wheezing sound, and coughing. It is unclear why some people get asthma, and some don’t, but it’s most likely due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors.

There are three main functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including transportation, digestion, and absorption of food. Associated organs include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. Appendicitis is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and filled with pus, causing pain. Some symptoms of appendicitis are nausea, vomiting, fever, and chills. There is no way to prevent appendicitis. However, appendicitis is less common in people who eat a diet high in fiber. Eating a diet with more plant-based foods also reduces other diseases such as obesity.

The urinary system’s main function is to eliminate waste from the body. Associated organs consist of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra. Kidney stones are small, hard deposits that form in the kidneys causing severe pain. Too much of certain wastes and not enough fluid in your blood build up and stick together in the kidneys. Some signs of kidney stones are pain in the stomach, back side, pain during urination, blood in urine, fever, and chills. Kidney stones can be prevented by staying hydrated, eating less sodium and eating more calcium rich foods. According to UW Health, in the U.S., the highest incidence of stones occurs in the South and the lowest in the West. The reasons for this are not exactly clear, although the hotter weather in the southern states may lead to dehydration, which may cause urine to become too concentrated.


Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals (2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.

UW Health. Retrieved from…

Student Reply 2:: Carolina Perez

Immune System

The organs that make up the immune system are the spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, liver, adenoids, and skin. When there are no issues, the immune system serves to protect the body against threats such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites, and differentiates them from the body’s healthy tissue (Zimmermann, 2018). A chronic, and common disease that affects the immune system is allergies. The immune system’s reaction to allergens can cause inflammation of the skin, sinuses, and airways.

The most common environmental allergens include pet dander, grass, pollen, dust mites, trees, among others. Signs of allergies are sneezing; itchy, watery eyes; runny nose; stuffy nose; etc. Although there is no cure for these common allergens, and they can’t be avoided as they can be hereditary, they can be treated with over the counter medication or prescriptions by a doctor. Allergic conditions can be evaluated through blood tests or allergy skin tests, and in order to reduce reactions, avoiding the known triggers is vital. Depending on the trigger, appropriate measures can be taken (ie: dusting, washing bedding, staying indoors during certain seasons and/or times of the day).

Gastrointestinal System

As stated by the Cleveland Clinic (n. d.), a healthy digestive system is “uniquely constructed to perform its specialized function of turning food into the energy you need to survive and packaging the residue for waste disposal” (para. 1). Its organs include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, rectum, and anus. A disorder associated with this body system is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which causes normal contractions of the intestinal muscles to become longer and painful. When the muscles in the colon don’t work at the right speed for proper digestion, or if the coordination with muscles in the rectum or pelvis is interrupted, the contents of the colon can’t move along smoothly (Rosario, 2016).

Causes for IBS include emotional stress, certain foods, and medications, and although IBS is not life threatening, it can be very uncomfortable and even embarrassing. Some symptoms of IBS are excess gas; bloating; abdominal cramps/pain; and change in bowel habits/movements (Rosario, 2016). Measures one can take to help diminish and/or help alleviate flare ups include avoiding caffeine; increasing fiber intake; monitoring which foods trigger flare ups; and implementing coping strategies for stress.

Urinary System

A normal functioning urinary system works to maintain the balance of chemicals and water in the body, and eliminate waste that is filtered from blood. The primary organs of this system are the kidneys; two ureters; bladder; two sphincter muscles; nerves; and the urethra (Zimmerman, 2018). Kidney stones can affect any part of the urinary tract and can damage the kidneys by blocking the flow of urine and causing bleeding and/or urinary tract infections (Mayo Clinic, 2019).

Kidney stones aren’t caused by anything in particular, and according to Mayo Clinic (2019), “Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances, such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid, than the fluid in your urine can dilute. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, creating an ideal environment for kidney stones to form (para. 10). A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within the kidney or passes into the ureter, which is when one can experience pain during urination; pain in the side and back below the ribs; fever, chills, frequent urination, pain as the stone moves through the urinary tract. To reduce the risk of developing kidney stones, staying hydrated; eating calcium-rich foods, limiting sodium intake, and eating less animal protein, can all be beneficial.


Digestive System. (n.d.). Retrieved from…(Links to an external site.)-the-structure-and-function-of-the-digestive-system (Links to an external site.)

Kidney stones. (2019). Retrieved from…(Links to an external site.)

Rosario, F. (Ed.). (2016). Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)

Zimmermann, K. A. (2018). Immune System: Diseases, Disorders & Function. Retrieved from… (Links to an external site.)

Zimmermann, K. A. (2018). Urinary System: Facts, Functions & Diseases. Retrieved from…

Question 2:

Final Project

In your role as a health care professional, you have been asked to speak to a community group regarding the connection between the human body and disease. You have been asked to select one of the CDC’s top five diseases (heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, or arthritis) that affects the systems explored in the class (see table below) and create a PowerPoint presentation that:

  1. Uses lay-person and medical terminology to describe the anatomical and physiological changes associated with the condition.
  2. Describes proper functioning of the primary system(s) that is/are affected by the chronic disease you select:
    • Major organ(s)
    • Essential functions
    • Importance to health
  3. Evaluates the dysfunction as a result of your chosen disease and describes the following:
    • Contributing factors
    • The nature of the dysfunction
    • The effect on other systems (comorbidities)
  4. Evaluates at least one genetic factor and at least two lifestyle factors that contribute to the onset of the disease.
  5. Analyzes at least two preventive actions people can take to reduce their risk of getting the disease.
  6. Analyzes at least two environmental elements that contribute to the onset and progression of the disease. Examples include: air quality, chemicals in products regularly used and/or consumed, food quality, consumption of soda and caffeine, petroleum-based chemicals used on and in food, genetically modified foods, impact of plastic, tobacco use and/or second-hand smoke, UV light exposure, environmental carcinogens, etcetera.
  7. Analyze ways in which the treatment of the disease can negatively impact the environment. Examples include: medical and household waste, recycling challenges, radiation, production of electricity, water usage, paper usage, air pollution, etcetera.

Systems covered in class:

Special Senses

Please note: You must create original work for this assignment. Submitting previously used material is unacceptable.

Preparing the Final Project

The Final Project:

  1. Must be a minimum of 20 PowerPoint slides in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title slide with the following:
    1. Title of presentation
    2. Student’s name
    3. Course name and number
    4. Instructor’s name
    5. Date submitted
  3. Must use at least six scholarly sources. The course textbook and a minimum of three scholarly articles from the Ashford University Library must be used. The remaining sources can come from the Ashford University Library or scholarly websites.
  4. Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  5. Must include a separate reference slide that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  6. Must include detailed speaker notes for each slide. Must make creative use of images and charts. Cite all images taken from an online source. Creative Commons (Links to an external site.) and Flickr (Links to an external site.) are great websites for open source images

Question 3::

At the conclusion of this lab exercise, you will understand and be able to use normal urinary analysis findings to make a diagnosis based on urinalysis data and other findings provided in multiple scenarios. Additionally, you will learn how urine indicates overall hydration, health problems that can be identified through urine color, and why taking a regular urinalysis is important in pregnant women. Answer the questions on the respective Lab Report form.

For this Assignment you must:

Complete tables two through five.

Answer questions one through six on the respective Lab Report form.

Your assignment must be formatted according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.